Event: CPT 2

Last updated: 7 April, 2003 0:17
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  1. Limitations - LIMITATIONS SHEET
  2. Cold Weather Limitations
    [NATOPS 17.4] Cold weather presents no serious problems for flight if pilot uses necessary precautions, especially in preflight.
    1. Servicing - Should be accomplished immediately after shutdown to prevent condensation within the tanks because of temperature change.
    2. Preflight - All vents and opening must be checked for ice. Snow, shush ice shall be removed. Pilot must be more thorough in the preflight inspection when temperatures have been or are below 0°C (32°F).
    3. Preparation for Flight – All vent openings such as fuel vents, battery vents, transmission breather, heater exhaust / intake, and engine air intakes must be checked for ice. WARNING: Takeoff is prohibited with show or ice on the helicopter due to potentially large differences in CG.
    4. Preheating - If controls are difficult to move, it is advisable to preheat them. Flight and engine controls may be difficult to move after the helicopter has been cold soaked. If the controls are not sufficiently free for a safe start and low power warm-up, have the affected controls thawed by heating. It may also be advisable to apply preheating to other areas such as engines, transmissions, and main rotor hub, and cockpit. NOTE: Extremely unequal temperature differences between the cockpit and OAT can cause canopy to crack.
    5. Prestart - APU should be used to prevent a hot start. Avoid starting engines on glare ice to prevent movement of aircraft due to torque effect. Battery starts below –15°C (-5°F) are marginal. A sudden loss of oil pressure in cold weather, other than a drop caused by relief valve opening, is usually because of a broken oil line. Shut down and investigate for cause.
    6. Takeoff - Restricted visibility may occur from blowing snow which may require max power takeoff or instrument takeoff without hover. Disorientation is possible, use visual cues.
    7. In Flight - If icing occurs, use pitot heat, defogger, and engine anti-icing. Windshield may become iced over. One per revolution vibrations from ice shedding may occur. Increase of torque may be necessary. Intentional flight in any known icing condition (<4°C in visible moisture) is prohibited. If icing condition are encountered during flight, effort should be made to vacate the icing environment immediately. Because of the possibility of engine flameout, flight in falling or blowing snow is prohibited. If icing conditions become unavoidable turn on the pitot heat, windshield defogger, and the engine anti-ice system
    8. Landing - Pilot should become familiar with terrain under snow. Visibility may be limited, use references. Be ready to take off immediately if landing gear gets caught. Do not reduce Nr until helicopter will not settle
    9. Taxi - Use a higher taxi altitude to prevent "white-out", zero visibility from blowing snow.

      Warning - Takeoff is prohibited with snow or ice on the helicopter. Accumulations of snow and ice will be removed prior to flight. Failure to do so can result in hazardous flight because of aerodynamic and center-of-gravity disturbances as well as the introduction of snow, water, and ice into internal moving parts and electrical systems. The pilot should be particularly attentive to the main and tail rotor systems and their exposed control linkages.
      Note - When moving the helicopter into or out of a heated hangar where there is an extreme difference in outside temperature, a canopy door should be open slightly to equalize the temperature inside the cockpit. Extremely unequal temperatures on opposite sides of Plexiglas can cause differential contraction and breakage.
      Caution - Whenever possible, avoid starting engines on glare ice to avoid the effect of torque reaction when increasing rpm.
      Note -Battery starts below minus 15° C (-5° F) are marginal.
      Caution - Should the engine fail to accelerate to proper idle speed (cold hang-up) or the time from lightoff to idle is excessive, abort start.
      Warning - Intentional flight in any known icing condition (less than 40C in visible moisture) is prohibited. If icing conditions are encountered during flight, effort should be made to vacate the icing environment immediately.
      Warning - Because of the possibility of engine flameout, flight in falling or blowing snow is prohibited.
      Warning - Control activity cannot be depended upon to remove ice from the main rotor system. Vigorous control movements should not be made in an attempt to reduce low-frequency vibrations caused by asymmetrical shedding of ice from the main rotor blades. These movements may induce a more asymmetri-cal shedding of ice, further aggravating helicopter vibration levels.
      Note- If the windshield defogger fails to keep the windshield clear of ice, the side windows may be used for visual reference during landing.
      Warning - Ice shed from the rotor blades and/or other rotating components presents a hazard to personnel during landing and shutdown. Ground personnel should remain well clear of the helicopter during landing and shutdown and passengers/ crewmembers should not exit the aircraft until the rotor has stopped turning.
      Warning - If visual reference is lost, accomplish a waveoff.
      Caution - Whenever possible when landing on glare ice, reduce sink rate as much as practical in order to reduce bending loads on the crosstubes.
      Caution - Radio and radar waves can penetrate the surface of snow and ice fields (such as the polar region); therefore, when radio and radar equipment are used for measuring terrain clearance, they may indicate greater terrain clearance than actually exists.
      Caution - Exercise extreme caution when starting and/or stopping rotors on ice- and snow -covered surfaces to prevent the helicopter from sliding.
      Voltmeter increases up to 28.5V +/- .5 @ OAT < 0 C [NATOPS 4-6]
      Do not wash at or below 5C [NATOPS 7-11]
      In temperatures below 7C, twist grip may be opened at 13% Ng [NATOPS 7-12]
      To prevent icing, use 10 min warm-up at IDLE when aircraft cold soaks in <-12C and high humidity [NATOPS 7-12]
      Temporary start conditions of 150 psi engine oil and 70 psi transmission oil are allowable [NATOPS 7-13]
      Anti-icing must be checked in prestart < 10C [NATOPS 7-14]
      Anti-icing and pitot heat must be on <10 w/ visible moisture likely [RWOP 1012]
      Low level BI shall not be conducted over when water when <60F [RWOP 1012]
  3. Power Source for all cockpit gauges

    28V DC Self-driven Wet Line Air Pressure Other
    Att Gyro
    Eng Oil Temp
    Radar Altimeter 
    Xmissn Oil Temp
    Fuel Quantity
    Turn Needle
    Fuel Pressure
    Nf - Tach/Gen
    Ng - Tach/Gen
    Nr - Tach/Gen
    Eng Oil Pressure
    Xmissn Oil Press
    Torque- & DC
    Airspeed - Pitot/Static  
    Altimeter - Static 
    VSI - Static

    Clock - Spring wound 
    Ball - Gravity

  4. Single instrument indications - Involve engine performance instruments and caution and warning lights. Pilot should consider each flight instrument and ask what would be the appropriate action if it fell to zero, or exceeds normal or maximum operating limits. [FTI 6-3] If redundant or related systems exist be sure to check to see if they agree and if not determine which is in error.
    1. Ng / Tach / TOT - If either falls to “0” or does not rise and fall with power changes while other gauges appear normal:
      1. Monitor other engine instruments
      2. Avoid high Power settings
      3. Land as soon as Practical
        Note: Failure of the Ng tach generator is usually accompanied by the engine out horn and caution light
    2. Torque meter – If it falls to “0” independently, the wet line has most likely ruptured:
      1. Monitor ENG OIL PRESS
      2. Land as soon as possible
        Note: Minor Fluctuations are normal
    3. ENG / XMSN Oil PRESSURE -
      If either indicates outside of normal range or fluctuates erratically:
      1. Land as soon as possible
        Note: XMSN malfunctions require minimal PWR changes to minimize changes to xmsn torque.
      1. If either redlines: Land as soon as possible.
      2. If either fluctuates or falls to “0”: Land as soon as practical.
  5. In-flight malfunctions - Emergencies fall into two categories, those that require immediate pilot attention and those that do not. Any loss of power, control, or structural integrity requires immediate action; most others are non-critical.

    NATOPS EPs generally divided into three categories:
    1. Maintaining/regaining power available
    2. Maintaining/regaining Nr, cyclic control, rotor control
    3. Minimizing damage and getting on deck. If the situation is not critical, it may become so requiring action soon, or be a "system failure", which may be noted and acted on as required. [FTI 6-2]
      Always scan Nr first during any emergency.
    1. Land as soon as Practicable – Extended flight is not recommended. The landing site and duration of flight is at the discretion of PIC. (Land at the nearest aerodrome, passing an aerodrome is considered extending flight)
    2. Land as soon as Possible – Land at the first site at which a safe landing can be made. (i.e. Farm field, parking lot etc.)
    3. Land Immediately – Landing in trees, water, or otherwise unsafe areas should be considered as a last resort.

      PROCEDURES: [ADAPTED FTI 6-3] Procedure when malfunction occurs:
    1. Correctly identify the emergency condition
    2. Report to the instructor this is a Land as Soon as Possible / Practical and your intended landing Site.
    3. Begin approach to nearest applicable site.
    4. Recite EP steps and remind Copilot to break out the PCL
    5. Remind Copilot of his responsibility to transmit Pan / Mayday report and complete the landing checklist


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(none for this event)


  1. Blindfold cockpit check
    Caution Light Panel: (Left to Right)
    1. AUD/MUT Switch, Fire DET Test Button, Caution Lights, Caution Lt Test button, Clear Chip Button
    2. Gauges Instrument Panel: (6 Columns, Top to Bottom)
      Column 1 - Voltmeter
      Column 2 - Engine Oil Pressure and Temp, Xmissn Oil Press, Loadmeter/Fuel Press.
      Column 3 - Torquemeter, TOT, Ng Tach, Clock
      Column 4 - Airspeed Ind., Nf/Nr Tach, Radar Alt
      Column 5 - Attitude Gyro, HSI, RMI
      Column 6 - BAR Altimeter, VSI, Turn Needle/Ball
    3. Avionics Instrument Panel: (Top to Bottom)
      Transponder, VHF Radio/NAV, UHF Radio
    4. Lower Instrument Panel: (Forward to Back)
      Caution/Icing/Hydraulic Switch Panel, Avionics Selector Switch Panel (right seat), Avionics Selector Switch Panel (left seat) Environmental Control Panel, Lower Circuit Breaker, RMI Slaving Switches
    5. Collective Switch Box: (From Left to Right)
      Starter Switch, Search Light Switch/Control Hat, Governor RPM Switch, (Idle Release Button below Switch Box above Twist Grip)
    6. Overhead CS Panel and Switches: (Forward to Aft, Left to Right)
      1st Row - Landing Light Switch, Pitot Heat Switch, Defog Blower Switch, Battery Switch, Generator Switch
      2nd Row - Steady/Flash Switch, Dim/Bright Switch. Gen Field CB, Gen Reset CB, Attitude Ind CB.
      3rd Row -Position Light Switch, Inst Lt Rheostat, Anti Coll Lt Switch (seven rows of various CB's)
    7. Miscellaneous:
      Wet Compass - Mounted directly fwd of right door at knee level
      Cabin Heat Valve - To the right of overhead CB panel
      Cyclic Friction Adjustment Knob - Base of cyclic
      Collective Friction Adjustment Knob - Base of collective
      OAT - Upper middle windscreen
      Fuel Valve - Directly below RMI gauge
      TOT Indicator Test - Below Voltmeter
      Force Trim Buttons - On cyclic, under normal thumb position
      Cargo Release Button - On cyclic, high thumb position
      Cockpit Lts - Mounted high on center column
      First Aid Kit - Mounted behind center column
      Aud Speaker - Overhead, behind CB's
  2. Abnormal starts - (see CPT1)
  3. Emergency engine shutdown:
    Following any emergency that necessitates rapid crew egress, execute a shutdown as follows:

    1. Twist grip OFF
    2. Fuel valve OFF
    3. BAT switch OFF
       © 4. Rotor brake OFF
  4. Engine oil system malfunctions

      ON GROUND:
      » If transmission oil pressure is 50-70 PSI or engine oil pressure is 130-150 PSI, do not accelerate the engine above flight idle until the transmission and engine oil pressures are within normal limits.
      » The engine shall be shut down if he transmission oil pressure exceeds 70 PSI or engine oil pressure exceeds 150 PSI

      » If either pressure gauge does not indicate within normal range or fluctuates erratically:

      1. Land as soon as possible

        With suspected transmission malfunctions, the pilot should make an approach with minimum power changes to transmission torque.

        Note - Check the transmission oil pressure with the twist grip full open. Illumination of the TRANS OIL PRESS caution light is common, while the twist grip is at flight idle, after power off maneuvers. However, the gauge should indicate positive transmission oil pressure.
      If either oil temperature gauge indicator exceeds red line limitations:
          *1. Land as soon as possible
      If either oil temperature gauge fluctuates or falls to zero:
          *2. Land as soon as practical
  5. Transmission oil system malfunctions - See engine oil system malfunctions above.
  6. Tach/Gen malfunctions - {Check other tach/gen. For Nr, check Xmssn oil press/Hydraulic Press -driven by same shaft}

    If the tachometer indications fluctuate or erratically peg and all other instrument and lights are normal, land as soon as practical, utilizing the remaining engine and performance instruments to monitor flight performance.
  7. TOT malfunction - {No Ng - check other tach/gen. Look for loss of Eng oil press because pump is on same shaft}


    If Ng or TOT falls to zero or fails to rise and fall with corresponding power changes:
    1. Monitor other engine instruments
    2. Avoid high power settings
    3. Land as soon as practical
      Note- Failure of the Ng tachometer generator is usually accompanied by actuation of the engine out warning horn and light.
    If any overtorque/overtemp/overspeed is observed, land as soon as possible.
  9. Torque Malfunctions
    If the torquemeter falls to zero, it is probable that the torque line has ruptured. Loss of engine oil will be kept to a minimum by a restrictor fitting in the system.
            *1. Monitor engine instruments
            *2. Land as soon as possible {Wet line malfunctions are land as soon as possible}
    If the digital torquemeter indication is unusually low or falls to zero with a corresponding digital readout, it is probable that the torque line has ruptures:
            *1. Monitor engine instruments
            *2. Land as soon as possible
    The digital torquemeter incorporates a transducer between the wet line and the gauge. If the indicator falls to zero and the digital readout is extinguished, the cause is a loss of electrical power to the indicator.
            1. Monitor engine instruments
            2. Check TRQ circuit breaker In {Bottom panel, right}
            3. Land as soon as practicable {Electrical, not wet line, so it is practical}
    Note- Some minor torque fluctuation is normal and should not be cause for concern
  10. Post shutdown fire/internal - (see CPT1)
  11. Smoke and fume elimination
    Indications: Fumes in cockpit, Smoke in cockpit, Equipment Failure

    1. ECS and DEFOG blower OFF
    2. Vents/windows Open
    3. Slip or skid aircraft to eliminate smoke and fumes
    4. Land as soon as possible

  12. Suspected fuel leakage
    Indications: Unusual fuel usage, Fuel fumes in cockpit
    1. Transmit position and intentions
    2. Unnecessary electrical equipment Secure {In VFR, battery and gen OFF since call made.}
    3. Land as soon as possible
      When on deck:
    4. Shutdown Completed
    5. Helicopter Exit


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  1. All FAM stage checklists and voice reports - PRESTART CHECKLISTS
  2. Normal starting/shutdown procedures - PRESTART CHECKLISTS
  3. Anti-ice operation - same as from CPT1

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