Unusual attitudes full panel (UA-FP)
An unusual attitude is a flight condition involving an extreme attitude, airspeed, or combination of the two. Confusion or carelessness of the pilot, excessively turbulent air, or inadvertent entrance into a cloud formation are some examples of how an aircraft may enter an unusual attitude.
The miniature airplane presentation on the attitude gyro is the most rapid method to picture the aircraft attitude. In addition to the attitude gyro, the airspeed indicator will furnish indications of nose attitude as well as elevator stick pressures to be anticipated, while the turn needle and RMI will give indications of wing position.
Recoveries must be timely and sequentially effected to prevent dangerously extreme attitudes. For example, in a nose low, airspeed high and increasing attitude there is a tendency to pull back stick to stop the altimeter unwinding, thus tightening the turn (GRAVEYARD SPIRAL). In nose high attitudes, there is a danger of stall if the recovery is not timely.
To determine the attitude of the aircraft and the proper recovery to be used, the pilot should immediately check the attitude gyro, which provides an instantaneous picture of the aircraft attitude. Since the gyro can precess, or in extremely rare cases, tumble, we must verify the attitude gyro prior to a recovery. The nose attitude should be quickly crosschecked by referring to the airspeed indicator; confirm wing attitude on the turn needle as you return toward the gyro to effect a recovery.
There are three different types of unusual attitudes that are taught in the BI stage. They are the nose low attitude, nose high attitude, and extreme nose high attitude.
The following will be performed by the instructor... Limitations: Not to exceed 50° nose high, 40° nose low, or 90° of bank. CONFIGURATION. For purposes of BI training in the T-34C, unusual attitudes will be entered from normal cruise, straight and level flight, with power set at 650-700 ft-lbs of torque. CHECKLIST. CLEAR. The stall checklist and clearing turns will be performed by the instructor prior to initiating any unusual attitude maneuver.
Performed by the student... Refer to the BI text pages 3-32 though 3-35 for a look at what the instruments should be doing.
Nose Low Attitude: nose below horizon.
-Allowing nose to rise while rolling wings level, thus effecting a “rolling pullout.”
-Not recognizing the need for power reduction, not returning the power to normal cruise setting upon recovery.
Nose High Attitude: nose <30° nose up pitch, airspeed > 100 kts.
NOTE - The nose and wings reach the straight and level flight attitude almost instantaneously. Level flight attitude is dependent upon airspeed and will necessarily be found above the horizon for all recovery airspeeds less than 150 kts and below the horizon for airspeeds greater than 150 kts.
- Not checking airspeed and making a normal nose high recovery with less than 100 kts.
- Lowering the nose completely to the horizon, then rolling the wings level. This type of recovery tends to produce vertigo.
Extreme Nose High Attitude: >=30, ° nose up pitch OR <100 kts
-Not crosschecking airspeed. A pitch of 10° nose up and an airspeed of 95 kts is an extreme nose high attitude.
-Continuing the roll to 90° AOB, even though the nose has passed the horizon.
-Allowing the nose to rise while rolling wings level, thus effecting a “rolling pullout.”
Lost aircraft procedures
If you get lost, admit it and try to communicate using all available channels and NAVAIDS. Be prepared to give a long count (i.e., 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1) or short count (i.e., 1-2-3-4-5-4-3-2-1) in the event of a lost plane search. Land as a suitable airfield before you run out of gas. The best policy is to remain oriented and don’t get lost. If you actually get lost, it will be necessary for you to use your own initiative and good judgment. Since every situation will be different, it is impossible to establish criterion which will apply to every set of circumstances. However, the following 5 C’s will generally apply to every case:
If you find yourself lost, the important think to remember is to not fly around aimlessly. Be calm and develop a plan using your good judgment and established procedures. If you still cannot identify your position after having gone through the 5 C’s, look for any established landing field. Before landing at a strange field, circle it at a safe altitude to locate all obstacles and hazards. Determine the wind direction and duty runway and try to get a rough estimation of runway length and width. If there is a tower at the field, try to contact Approach or tower on GUARD prior to landing. Once you are ready to land make a normal traffic pattern. Remember that the field elevation may be considerably different from that of your homefield. Use the best estimation and adjust accordingly. Once on deck, notify your base of the situation.
During foul weather, maintain a visual reference to the ground. DO NOT FLY ABOVE AN OVERCAST. If you happen to blunder above a cloud layer, try to find a hole in the clouds and let down VFR. If letdown is impossible and no other instructions have been received (5 C’s) BAILOUT is imminent. Do not wait until fuel exhaustion, but do not be in a hurry to “throw in the towel” either. Be calm and exercise good headwork.
Initial Climb to Altitude (ICA)
The initial climb to altitude incorporates fundamental airwork into a sequence in which the pilot is faced with continuous changes of altitude and heading, while maintaining a constant airspeed. The ICA will be performed between assigned reversal headings and level off altitude.
Your instructor will make the field departure and climbout in accordance with
course rules. Once level at the base altitude, he will maintain straight and
level flight in normal cruise (150 kts). If not previously assigned, reversal
headings and the level off altitude will be assigned by the instructor. When
directed, position the instrument hood and commence the ICA as follows:
1) Not trimming right and up for slowing airspeed.
2) Not switching to normal oxygen.
3) Initiating turns prior to establishing aircraft in a climb.
4) Not trimming throughout the ICA.
5) Not coordinating right rudder with initial power application resulting in poor heading control.
6) Raising the nose in reversals. The nose of the aircraft tends to pitch up as the wings roll through the level-wings attitude. Forward stick pressure is necessary to maintain the same nose attitude during reversals (if properly trimmed).
7) Over correcting for airspeed using abrupt nose attitude changes.
8) Attempting to correct for AOB using the bank index as a turn needle and rolling in the wrong direction. Make bank corrections by initiating roll on the miniature aircraft and then check the bank index.
9) Insufficient acceleration trim on level off resulting in climbing past your altitude.
The GCA maneuver closely resembles the procedures used for an instrument ground controlled approach.
1) During missed approach, lowering the nose after retracting gear and flaps in order to gain 120 kts; resulting in a descent.
2) Not anticipating heading or altitude lead during level off from missed approach.
3) Lack of right rudder during missed approach resulting in left heading drift.
4) Rotating nose above prescribed attitudes during missed approach.
5) During 1000 foot descent, not maintaining 500 fpm rate. Use power to maintain rate and nose attitude to maintain airspeed.
6) Forgetting to ask the instructor to turn landing lights on/off.
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