I2003"BI 3"

Last updated: 3 June, 2008 16:46 by Bryan Weatherup
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Unusual attitudes full panel (UA-FP)

An unusual attitude is a flight condition involving an extreme attitude, airspeed, or combination of the two. Confusion or carelessness of the pilot, excessively turbulent air, or inadvertent entrance into a cloud formation are some examples of how an aircraft may enter an unusual attitude.

The miniature airplane presentation on the attitude gyro is the most rapid method to picture the aircraft attitude. In addition to the attitude gyro, the airspeed indicator will furnish indications of nose attitude as well as elevator stick pressures to be anticipated, while the turn needle and RMI will give indications of wing position.

Recoveries must be timely and sequentially effected to prevent dangerously extreme attitudes. For example, in a nose low, airspeed high and increasing attitude there is a tendency to pull back stick to stop the altimeter unwinding, thus tightening the turn (GRAVEYARD SPIRAL). In nose high attitudes, there is a danger of stall if the recovery is not timely.

To determine the attitude of the aircraft and the proper recovery to be used, the pilot should immediately check the attitude gyro, which provides an instantaneous picture of the aircraft attitude. Since the gyro can precess, or in extremely rare cases, tumble, we must verify the attitude gyro prior to a recovery. The nose attitude should be quickly crosschecked by referring to the airspeed indicator; confirm wing attitude on the turn needle as you return toward the gyro to effect a recovery.

There are three different types of unusual attitudes that are taught in the BI stage. They are the nose low attitude, nose high attitude, and extreme nose high attitude.

The following will be performed by the instructor... Limitations: Not to exceed 50° nose high, 40° nose low, or 90° of bank. CONFIGURATION. For purposes of BI training in the T-34C, unusual attitudes will be entered from normal cruise, straight and level flight, with power set at 650-700 ft-lbs of torque. CHECKLIST. CLEAR. The stall checklist and clearing turns will be performed by the instructor prior to initiating any unusual attitude maneuver.

Performed by the student... Refer to the BI text pages 3-32 though 3-35 for a look at what the instruments should be doing.

Nose Low Attitude: nose below horizon.

  1. Immediately check gyro for nose and wing position.
  2. Glance at airspeed, then the turn needle. If airspeed is fast (approaching 200 kts), reduce power to idle.
    NOTE - Accomplish steps 1 and 2 almost simultaneously.
  3. Maintain nose attitude as you level the wings on the attitude gyro and center the ball.
  4. After the wings are level, raise the nose to the level flight attitude. Remember, the level flight attitude is dependent upon airspeed.
  5. Return power to normal cruise power when gyro is indicating the level flight, and 2-3 kts prior to 150 kts.

Common errors:
-Allowing nose to rise while rolling wings level, thus effecting a “rolling pullout.”
-Not recognizing the need for power reduction, not returning the power to normal cruise setting upon recovery.

Nose High Attitude: nose <30° nose up pitch, airspeed > 100 kts.

  1. Immediately check gyro for nose position (<30° up).
  2. Cross check airspeed for 100 kts or greater and check turn needle as you retrim to the gyro.
  3. Lower the nose toward the level flight attitude maintaining AOB.
  4. Approaching level flight, level the wings, center the ball, and maintain balanced flight.

NOTE - The nose and wings reach the straight and level flight attitude almost instantaneously. Level flight attitude is dependent upon airspeed and will necessarily be found above the horizon for all recovery airspeeds less than 150 kts and below the horizon for airspeeds greater than 150 kts.

Common errors:
- Not checking airspeed and making a normal nose high recovery with less than 100 kts.
- Lowering the nose completely to the horizon, then rolling the wings level. This type of recovery tends to produce vertigo.

Extreme Nose High Attitude: >=30, ° nose up pitch OR <100 kts

  1. Immediately check gyro for nose position (30° or more pitch) and wing position.
  2. Crosscheck airspeed for less than 100 kts.

    NOTE - Either condition mentioned in the above two steps constitutes an extreme nose high attitude. If the airspeed is less than 100 kts, the nose must be above the horizon; otherwise, it is simply nose low.
  3. Crosscheck turn needle.
  4. Using aileron and rudder, roll the aircraft toward, not necessarily to, 90° of bank, in the direction of the turn needle.
  5. Fly the nose of the aircraft through the horizon, using bottom rudder.
  6. As the nose passes the horizon, roll wings level (do not pull back stick during this roll in order to avoid a rolling pullout), center the ball and maintain balanced flight.
  7. Raise the nose to the level flight attitude (which is dependent upon airspeed, or course).

    Common errors:
    -Not crosschecking airspeed. A pitch of 10° nose up and an airspeed of 95 kts is an extreme nose high attitude.
    -Continuing the roll to 90° AOB, even though the nose has passed the horizon.
    -Allowing the nose to rise while rolling wings level, thus effecting a “rolling pullout.”

Lost aircraft procedures

If you get lost, admit it and try to communicate using all available channels and NAVAIDS. Be prepared to give a long count (i.e., 1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-9-8-7-6-5-4-3-2-1) or short count (i.e., 1-2-3-4-5-4-3-2-1) in the event of a lost plane search. Land as a suitable airfield before you run out of gas. The best policy is to remain oriented and don’t get lost. If you actually get lost, it will be necessary for you to use your own initiative and good judgment. Since every situation will be different, it is impossible to establish criterion which will apply to every set of circumstances. However, the following 5 C’s will generally apply to every case:

  1. CONFESS. Admit that you are lost and need some form of assistance.
  2. CLIMB. Ceiling and visibility permitting, climb to improve radio reception and forward visibility.

    If approach control replies, they will ask you to squawk a certain code on your transponder. They may also ask you to provide other information in order to give you a vector (heading) to homefield. If it appears that clouds will be on your vectored flight path, advise Approach and circle VFR if necessary.
  3. COMMUNICATE. Request assistance on the area working frequency from an instructor pilot or advice form your FDO/ODO. If unable, try calling Approach Control frequency with a PAN report and request vectors to homefield. If unable to receive any reply, switch radio and try again on GUARD frequency.
  4. CONSERVE. Operate the aircraft (when straight and level) at maximum endurance power setting (420 ft-lbs).
  5. COMPLY - With instructions received from another dual aircraft Approach or your base. Many prominent landmarks are available in and around your working areas to give clues as to your general whereabouts.

If you find yourself lost, the important think to remember is to not fly around aimlessly. Be calm and develop a plan using your good judgment and established procedures. If you still cannot identify your position after having gone through the 5 C’s, look for any established landing field. Before landing at a strange field, circle it at a safe altitude to locate all obstacles and hazards. Determine the wind direction and duty runway and try to get a rough estimation of runway length and width. If there is a tower at the field, try to contact Approach or tower on GUARD prior to landing. Once you are ready to land make a normal traffic pattern. Remember that the field elevation may be considerably different from that of your homefield. Use the best estimation and adjust accordingly. Once on deck, notify your base of the situation.

During foul weather, maintain a visual reference to the ground. DO NOT FLY ABOVE AN OVERCAST. If you happen to blunder above a cloud layer, try to find a hole in the clouds and let down VFR. If letdown is impossible and no other instructions have been received (5 C’s) BAILOUT is imminent. Do not wait until fuel exhaustion, but do not be in a hurry to “throw in the towel” either. Be calm and exercise good headwork.

New Maneuvers for this event:

Initial Climb to Altitude (ICA)

The initial climb to altitude incorporates fundamental airwork into a sequence in which the pilot is faced with continuous changes of altitude and heading, while maintaining a constant airspeed. The ICA will be performed between assigned reversal headings and level off altitude.

Your instructor will make the field departure and climbout in accordance with course rules. Once level at the base altitude, he will maintain straight and level flight in normal cruise (150 kts). If not previously assigned, reversal headings and the level off altitude will be assigned by the instructor. When directed, position the instrument hood and commence the ICA as follows:

  1. Switch oxygen control panel to normal from 100% and report: ICS “O2 normal.”
  2. 1015 ft-lbs, monitor ITT.
  3. 12-15° nose up. Trim right and up as the airspeed decreases.
  4. As the airspeed approaches climb airspeed (120 kts), nose to climbing attitude (approximately 6-8° nose up) and retrim.
  5. Once established at 120 kts, start the turns by rolling into an AOB on the attitude gyro equal to 10% of the airspeed (120 kts = 12 degrees angle of bank). Once the attitude is set on the gyro, commence wing position crosscheck on the turn needle for an exact one needle width turn and a nose position crosscheck on the airspeed indicator for 120 kts.
  6. Continue turns between assigned headings by making a smooth reversal from one turn into another. Lead reversals by 1/3 rule, trimming the aircraft as necessary.
  7. 200' of the assigned level off altitude, stop the turn on the first reversal heading that you come to an continue the climb on that heading.
  8. Begin the level off by smoothly lowering the nose towards the level flight attitude (about halfway towards the horizon) in order to both accelerate and climb. Trim left and down as the aircraft accelerates.
  9. Upon reaching the desired level off altitude, continue to trim left and down, and allow the aircraft to accelerate towards normal cruise airspeed while maintaining altitude. 2-3 kts prior to 150 kts, smoothly reduce power to 650-700 ft-lbs and retrim the aircraft to maintain level flight.

Common errors:

1) Not trimming right and up for slowing airspeed.
2) Not switching to normal oxygen.
3) Initiating turns prior to establishing aircraft in a climb.
4) Not trimming throughout the ICA.
5) Not coordinating right rudder with initial power application resulting in poor heading control.
6) Raising the nose in reversals. The nose of the aircraft tends to pitch up as the wings roll through the level-wings attitude. Forward stick pressure is necessary to maintain the same nose attitude during reversals (if properly trimmed).
7) Over correcting for airspeed using abrupt nose attitude changes.
8) Attempting to correct for AOB using the bank index as a turn needle and rolling in the wrong direction. Make bank corrections by initiating roll on the miniature aircraft and then check the bank index.
9) Insufficient acceleration trim on level off resulting in climbing past your altitude.

GCA maneuver

The GCA maneuver closely resembles the procedures used for an instrument ground controlled approach.

  1. C: Normal cruise, cardinal heading, base altitude.
  2. Level transition to the basic approach configuration (BAC):
    1. 450 ft-lbs, left rudder pressure to compensate for the power reduction.
    2. 150 kts... lower gear. Maintain the level flight attitude on the attitude gyro and anticipate trim, right and up.
    3. Maintain altitude at 120 kts toward the BAC level attitude (2° nose up). Trim right and up.
    4. 120 kts... 700-750 ft-lbs. Maintain 120 kts and retrim.
  3. Perform the landing checklist down to flaps, reporting each item to you instructor. Check landing lights on.
  4. SRT in either direction for 90° of heading change while maintaining altitude. Lead the rollout by 1/3 rule.
  5. Upon rolling out of the turn, stabilize the aircraft on altitude heading and airspeed.
  6. Final Approach Configuration (FAC):
    1. 450 ft-lbs of torque
    2. 120 kts... full flaps. Lower the nose toward the FAC attitude (0°) to counteract the tendency to gain altitude as flaps extend. Trim right and up as the aircraft decelerates to maintain altitude and heading.
    3. 100 kts... 700-750 ft-lbs of torque and retrim.
  7. SRT in same direction as the last turn for 90° of heading change while maintaining altitude. Lead the rollout by 1/3 rule.
  8. Stabilize, 550-600 ft-lbs torque, 2-3° nose down, maintain 100 kts and descend for 1000' @ 500 fpm *Nose attitude controls airspeed and power controls rate of descent. VSI as part of systematic scan. Retrim.
  9. During descent, the instructor will give approximately four heading changes of 3-10 degrees each.
  10. Upon completion of 1000 foot descent, execute a missed approach by:
    1. 1015 ft-lbs, monitor ITT, right rudder pressure to maintain balanced flight, ball centered.
    2. 4° nose up and holding a positive climbing attitude.
    3. 120 kts... gear and flaps, landing lights off. “3 up and locked.”
    4. 6° nose up. 100 kts...
    5. 6-8° .nose up, 120 kts, climb for 1000 feet on last assigned heading. Retrim.
  11. 200' prior to level off, transition to normal cruise. Trim left & down as airspeed increases.
  12. 2-3 kts prior to normal cruise, reduce power to 650-700 ft-lbs to maintain 150 kts. Retrim.

Common errors:
1) During missed approach, lowering the nose after retracting gear and flaps in order to gain 120 kts; resulting in a descent.
2) Not anticipating heading or altitude lead during level off from missed approach.
3) Lack of right rudder during missed approach resulting in left heading drift.
4) Rotating nose above prescribed attitudes during missed approach.
5) During 1000 foot descent, not maintaining 500 fpm rate. Use power to maintain rate and nose attitude to maintain airspeed.
6) Forgetting to ask the instructor to turn landing lights on/off.

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