Slip (at altitude) - The slip is an out-of-balanced-flight condition used to increase sink rate and lose excess altitude while maintaining a constant airspeed and a specific track over the ground. In a full slip, the rate of descent may be in excess of 2000 fpm.
Skidded turn stall (STS)
This will most likely occur in a right turn to final during a power-off emergency approach with gear down and flaps up. The student may be over-conscious of the low altitude and be reluctant to lower the right wing to maintain balanced flight. The tendency, therefore, would be to use excessive rudder to turn the aircraft and raise the nose slightly to stretch the glide.
OUT-OF-CONTROL RECOVERY procedures:
Draw Oil System
Oil system failure - Fluctuating (> +/- 5 PSI), Low/high pressure (<65 PSI @ >75% N1, >80 PSI), High temperature (>100° C)
NOTE - Because of the design and installation of the oil pressure transmitting and indicating system, minor fluctuations of oil pressure may be noted by the pilot with a normally functioning engine oil system. A vibrating needle or minor fluctuations of pressure with a steady mean, where extremes of needle movement remain within the normal range and do not exceed +5 psi, are acceptable when no secondary indications of engine malfunction are observed.
Torque sensing system failure
If erroneous torque indications are suspected or torquemeter reads zero, reduce power to assure torque below limit. Monitor instruments and land as soon as practical. If you have no secondary indications of possible AC failure (26Vac), utilize the fuel flow indicator and N1 to determine where you should place your PCL. I recommend using a fuel flow of no more than 250 PPH and N1 83-87%
The torquemeter sense switch located in the reduction gear box measures the amount of torque applied to the propeller shaft by measuring the oil pressure. If pressure drops to 240 +60, the autoignition light goes out and the ignition light comes on. Torquemeter oil pressure is routed to three power plant accessories: the torque limiter, autoignition sense switch, and the torque transmitter. The torque transmitter, located on the reduction gearbox flange, converts the torquemeter oil pressure to a 26Vac electrical signal to operate the torque indicators in the cockpits.
CHIP Light - A magnetic chip detector is located at the bottom of the RGB to provide the pilot with a warning signal for metal particles in the oil and possible engine failure. The chip detector is a dual-element probe with one probe magnetized and connected to a dc potential and a second element comprised of an insulated wire to the fault circuit. The detector is exposed to the oil flow, and functions as a normally open switch. If a large metal chip or mass of small metal particles bridges the detector gap, a circuit is completed, illuminating the flashing MASTER CAUTION light and a yellow CHIP light on the annunciator panel.
Chip Detector Caution Light On Ground
EMERGENCY ENGINE SHUTDOWN - EXECUTE
Chip Detector Caution Light In Flight
WARNING - Torque indications may be erroneous because of reduction gearbox failure. Careful attention should be given to rate of descent, and to rate of climb, setting PCL as required to maintain proper PEL profile.
NOTE - For comparison purposes only, an 850 ft-lb climb on a standard day should yield an approximate minimum rate of climb of 1,200 fpm (clean), 700 fpm (gear down). If indicated climb rates are significantly lower, suspect erroneous torque indications and increase power cautiously to achieve proper airspeed/VSI combination. Closely monitor engine instruments for secondary indications of rising ITT, high oil temperature, and/or fluctuating oil pressure. If secondary indications of engine failure occur while on or above ELP profile, consideration shall be given to securing the engine.
NOTE - Illumination of the magnetic CHIP detector light indicated that metal particles are present in the propeller reduction gearbox.Fire on the Ground
Fire Inflight - FECABEP
Acritical emergency, requiring the pilot to assess, diagnose, and take prompt corrective action. CONFIRM. If the fire or resultant structural damage exceeds the compensation capability of the pilot, bailout would be indicated.
Electrical/Unknown origin fire
|1.||Isolate / locate||Utility bus switches - OFF|
|2.||Battery and Generator switches - OFF||All nonessential equipment - OFF||NACWS
Reduce (as required to minimize possible spread of fire)
100% Oxygen - DON as required
Cockpit environmental control / Aft cockpit outside air - OFF
If fire persists:
|6.||ENGINE FIRE procedure - EXECUTE.||BAILOUT|
If fire extinguishes:
|Land as soon as possible
Execute RESTORING ELECTRICAL POWER
NOTE - Under varying conditions of altitude, fire, smoke, or fumes, the pilot has the option of using 100-percent oxygen, opening canopy, and/or closing the oxygen cylinder valve as dictated by judgment.
CAUTION - Should the pilot elect to initiate an emergency landing with electrical power secured, additional consideration should be given to the landing approach; allow additional time to handcrank the landing gear down and plan for a no-flap landing with maximum runway length, since beta will not be available.
Wing fire - A fire in the wing could be caused by fuel leakage and/or defective electrical wiring.
IMC - When all electrical power is secured, all attitude flight instruments are inoperative. Therefore, do not secure both battery and generator switches during instrument conditions.
Restoring electrical power
If the fire extinguishes, use the following procedure to activate essential circuits, allowing sufficient interval to isolate the faulty circuit:
Smoke or Fume Elimination - If fuel fumes are present in the cockpit:
CAUTION - Prior to accomplishing any procedure that will create a draft in the cockpit, determine the source of smoke. A sudden draft may cause a smoldering fire to burst into flame.
WARNING - Do not activate the flaps or the landing gear electrically with fuel fumes present in the cockpit; electrical arcing may cause an explosion.
Land ASAP (NATOPS): Land at the nearest site at which a safe
landing can be made. Land as soon as Practical (NATOPS): Extended
flight is not recommended. The landing site and duration of flight is at the
discretion of the pilot in command.
NOTES - An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that is essential to emphasize.
CAUTION - An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that may result in damage to equipment if not carefully observed or followed.
WARNING - An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that may result in injury or death if not carefully observed or followed.
No Flap approach and Landing
* The No Flap approach and landing are the same as the Full Flap approach & landing with exceptions:
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