C4102"Fam 6"

Last updated: 3 June, 2008 16:46 by Bryan Weatherup
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Slip (at altitude) - The slip is an out-of-balanced-flight condition used to increase sink rate and lose excess altitude while maintaining a constant airspeed and a specific track over the ground. In a full slip, the rate of descent may be in excess of 2000 fpm.

  1. Although the slip can be flown at any airspeed or configuration, it will be demonstrated and introduced at altitude simulating the slip to high key at 100 kts with gear up and flaps down.

    NOTE - Caution must be exercised since stall speed is increased in this out-of-balanced flight condition.

    To initiate a slip from wings level
    - Wing-low, Top-Rudder
    - Report "_____wing low, ______ top rudder" (report left/right, right/left)
    - Select a reference point on the horizon and adjust rudder pressure and/or AOB to maintain a desired ground track.

    To initiate a slip while in a turn
    - Lower the inboard wing while increasing opposite (top) rudder pressure.
    - It will be necessary to vary the AOB and rudder pressure to maintain the desired track over the ground.
    - Monitor airspeed closely, adjust nose attitude as necessary to maintain 100 kts.
    - Monitor the VSI and note increased rate of descent.

    NOTE - The low-fuel warning light for the low-wing tank may illuminate regardless of fuel state.
  2. To recover from the slip, smoothly roll the wings toward level while reducing rudder pressure. Remember, the slip must be taken out with enough altitude remaining to slow the rate of descent and ensure positive control of the aircraft during the final moments of any maneuver in which it is used.

    Common errors:
    1. Improper application of rudder resulting in a skid.
    2. Poor airspeed control. Remember, nose attitude still controls
    3. Not varying AOB or rudder pressure to maintain desired track over
    4. Rough entry and recovery control applications.

Skidded turn stall (STS)
This will most likely occur in a right turn to final during a power-off emergency approach with gear down and flaps up. The student may be over-conscious of the low altitude and be reluctant to lower the right wing to maintain balanced flight. The tendency, therefore, would be to use excessive rudder to turn the aircraft and raise the nose slightly to stretch the glide.

  1. C: 100 kts level flight, downwind configuration, clean.
  2. C: stall checklist:
  3. C: 30° AOB with last 90° to the right.
  4. At the beginning of the last 90° of turn, PCL to 300 ft-lbs, transition to a 100 kt descent.
  5. At the completion of the clearing turn, apply excessive right rudder while using left aileron to maintain 30 deg AOB. Simultaneously, raise the nose while reducing the PCL to 200 ft-lbs. Increase control pressures as airspeed is reduced.
  6. After the aircraft stalls, recover with OUT-OF-CONTROL RECOVERY procedures.
  7. Ensure 150 kts is not exceeded throughout the maneuver.


  1. Positively neutralize controls
  2. PCL - IDLE
  3. Determine aircraft altitude

    - If recovery from out-of-control flight cannot be accomplished by 5000 ft-AGL, BAILOUT.
  4. Determine, AOA (30 units; pegged), airspeed (80-100 kts), and check turn needle (fully deflected in direction of the spin). Which are essentially your ERECT SPIN CHARACTERISTICS.
  5. If in a steady state spin: Execute spin recovery technique as appropriate (full opposite rudder of turn needle; stick forward of neutral; and aileron neutral).
  6. After the aircraft regains controlled flight: Execute unusual attitude recovery as appropriate.

    CAUTION - Lower power settings reduce torque effect, restrict onset of rapid airspeed buildup, and enhance controllability. However, departures from controlled flight in close proximity to the ground may require rapid power addition upon OCF recover.

Draw Oil System

Oil system failure - Fluctuating (> +/- 5 PSI), Low/high pressure (<65 PSI @ >75% N1, >80 PSI), High temperature (>100° C)

  1. PEL - EXECUTE (850 ft-lb max & avoid unnecessary PCL movements)
    If engine malfunction or engine failure occurs:

NOTE - Because of the design and installation of the oil pressure transmitting and indicating system, minor fluctuations of oil pressure may be noted by the pilot with a normally functioning engine oil system. A vibrating needle or minor fluctuations of pressure with a steady mean, where extremes of needle movement remain within the normal range and do not exceed +5 psi, are acceptable when no secondary indications of engine malfunction are observed.

Torque sensing system failure
If erroneous torque indications are suspected or torquemeter reads zero, reduce power to assure torque below limit. Monitor instruments and land as soon as practical. If you have no secondary indications of possible AC failure (26Vac), utilize the fuel flow indicator and N1 to determine where you should place your PCL. I recommend using a fuel flow of no more than 250 PPH and N1 83-87%

The torquemeter sense switch located in the reduction gear box measures the amount of torque applied to the propeller shaft by measuring the oil pressure. If pressure drops to 240 +60, the autoignition light goes out and the ignition light comes on. Torquemeter oil pressure is routed to three power plant accessories: the torque limiter, autoignition sense switch, and the torque transmitter. The torque transmitter, located on the reduction gearbox flange, converts the torquemeter oil pressure to a 26Vac electrical signal to operate the torque indicators in the cockpits.

CHIP Light - A magnetic chip detector is located at the bottom of the RGB to provide the pilot with a warning signal for metal particles in the oil and possible engine failure. The chip detector is a dual-element probe with one probe magnetized and connected to a dc potential and a second element comprised of an insulated wire to the fault circuit. The detector is exposed to the oil flow, and functions as a normally open switch. If a large metal chip or mass of small metal particles bridges the detector gap, a circuit is completed, illuminating the flashing MASTER CAUTION light and a yellow CHIP light on the annunciator panel.

Chip Detector Caution Light On Ground

Chip Detector Caution Light In Flight

  1. PEL - EXECUTE (850 ft/lb max & avoid unnecessary PCL movements)

    If engine failure/mechanical malfunction occurs:

WARNING - Torque indications may be erroneous because of reduction gearbox failure. Careful attention should be given to rate of descent, and to rate of climb, setting PCL as required to maintain proper PEL profile.

NOTE - For comparison purposes only, an 850 ft-lb climb on a standard day should yield an approximate minimum rate of climb of 1,200 fpm (clean), 700 fpm (gear down). If indicated climb rates are significantly lower, suspect erroneous torque indications and increase power cautiously to achieve proper airspeed/VSI combination. Closely monitor engine instruments for secondary indications of rising ITT, high oil temperature, and/or fluctuating oil pressure. If secondary indications of engine failure occur while on or above ELP profile, consideration shall be given to securing the engine.

NOTE - Illumination of the magnetic CHIP detector light indicated that metal particles are present in the propeller reduction gearbox.

Fire on the Ground

Fire Inflight - FECABEP
Acritical emergency, requiring the pilot to assess, diagnose, and take prompt corrective action. CONFIRM. If the fire or resultant structural damage exceeds the compensation capability of the pilot, bailout would be indicated.

  1. FIRE - TURN AND CONFIRM (Illumination of FIRE warning light is usually the first indication)
    If a fire is confirmed:
    (Condition lever - FUEL OFF, Emergency fuel shutoff handle - PULL)
  3. Cockpit environmental control
    Aft cockpit outside air - OFF

    - Under varying conditions of altitude, fire, smoke, or fumes, the pilot has the option of using 100-percent oxygen, opening canopy, and/or closing the oxygen cylinder valve as dictated by judgment.

    If fire does not go out:
  4. BAILOUT (Altitude permitting: 1,500' VMC, 2,000' IMC/Night, 5,000' OCF/Binding controls)
    If the fire is exstinguished:
  5. ENGINE FAILURE procedures, *Do not attempt a restart.
    If no fire or smoke can be observed:
  6. PEL - EXECUTE (Land as soon as possible)
Electrical/Unknown origin fire
1. Isolate / locate Utility bus switches - OFF  
2. Battery and Generator switches - OFF All nonessential equipment - OFF NACWS
Landing Light
Air Conditioning


              Airspeed Reduce (as required to minimize possible spread of fire)
              100% Oxygen - DON as required
              Cockpit environmental control / Aft cockpit outside air - OFF
If fire persists:

If fire extinguishes:
Land as soon as possible

NOTE - Under varying conditions of altitude, fire, smoke, or fumes, the pilot has the option of using 100-percent oxygen, opening canopy, and/or closing the oxygen cylinder valve as dictated by judgment.

CAUTION - Should the pilot elect to initiate an emergency landing with electrical power secured, additional consideration should be given to the landing approach; allow additional time to handcrank the landing gear down and plan for a no-flap landing with maximum runway length, since beta will not be available.

Wing fire - A fire in the wing could be caused by fuel leakage and/or defective electrical wiring.


  1. Battery and generator switches - OFF
  2. Attempt to extinguish the fire by slipping the aircraft away from the fire.
    If the fire does not extinguish or is obviously fuel fed:
    If the fire is extinguished:
  4. Secure the switches and circuit breakers that control power to the wing.
    1. Switches: landing/navigation/strobe lights, pitot heat.
  5. Battery and generator switches - ON (if required)
  6. Land as soon as possible.

IMC - When all electrical power is secured, all attitude flight instruments are inoperative. Therefore, do not secure both battery and generator switches during instrument conditions.

  1. Time permitting, secure the switches and circuit breakers that control power to the wing.
    1. Switches: landing/navigation/strobe lights, pitot heat.
  2. Attempt to extinguish the fire by slipping the aircraft away from the fire.
    If the fire does not extinguish or is obviously fuel fed:
    If the fire extinguishes:
  4. Restore power to the wing - AS REQUIRED
  5. Land as soon as possible.

Restoring electrical power
If the fire extinguishes, use the following procedure to activate essential circuits, allowing sufficient interval to isolate the faulty circuit:

  1. Utility bus switches - OFF
  2. Essential bus circuit breakers - PULL (2/7, 13, 3/4, 7)
  3. All electrical and avionics switches - OFF (UHF, inverters, TACAN, VOR, transponder, avionics master)
  4. Battery switch - ON
  5. Generator switch - ON/RESET (OFF if faulty)
  6. Avionics master switch - ON
  7. Avionics & electrical equipment essential to continued flight ON.

Smoke or Fume Elimination - If fuel fumes are present in the cockpit:

  1. 100% Oxygen DON
  2. Airspeed REDUCE (minimize possible spread of fire)
  3. Cockpit environmental control, Aft cockpit outside air - FRESH AIR INCREASE / ON
  4. Canopy - OPEN, EMERGENCY OPEN as required (If smoke or fumes cannot be eliminated and so restrict vision that a safe landing cannot be made or excessive heat buildup requires more ventilation (<240 kts open, 250 kts Emerg open)

    CAUTION - Prior to accomplishing any procedure that will create a draft in the cockpit, determine the source of smoke. A sudden draft may cause a smoldering fire to burst into flame.

    WARNING - Do not activate the flaps or the landing gear electrically with fuel fumes present in the cockpit; electrical arcing may cause an explosion.

Land ASAP (NATOPS): Land at the nearest site at which a safe landing can be made. Land as soon as Practical (NATOPS): Extended flight is not recommended. The landing site and duration of flight is at the discretion of the pilot in command. Notes/Cautions/Warnings (NATOPS)
NOTES - An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that is essential to emphasize.
CAUTION - An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that may result in damage to equipment if not carefully observed or followed.
WARNING - An operating procedure, practice, or condition, etc., that may result in injury or death if not carefully observed or followed.

New Maneuvers for this event:

No Flap approach and Landing
* The No Flap approach and landing are the same as the Full Flap approach & landing with exceptions:

  1. 15° prior to abeam - Power 275 ft-lbs
  2. 180° - 95 kts
  3. Maintain 95 kts throughout final/approach
  4. Climbout airspeed after touch and go - 100 kts

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