C4101 "Fam 5"

Last updated: 3 June, 2008 16:46 by Bryan Weatherup
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G-awareness (read NATOPS, FTI, API Physiology books)

T-34C Limitations
Operating limits: ITT
Normal idle range 400-660°C
Normal operating range 400-695°C
Max @ shutdown w/cond.lever 610°C
Max continuous 695°C
Max acceleration 825°C
Hot start 925°C (2 sec)
Max during starts 1090°C

Prop RPM (N2)
Idle operating range <1800RPM
Normal operating range 2200 RPM ±25
Over speed governor 2332 RPM ±40
Fuel topping governor 2398 RPM

Engine Tachometer (N1)
Introduce fuel @ 12%
Flameout 10-12%
FCU stuck @min.flow(rollback) 40-60%
Minimum for flight (griped) 60%
Idle operating range 62-65%
Normal operating range 89-93%
Maximum 101.5%
Max acceleration 102.6%

Airspeed Limitations
Max clean (surface-20,000’) 280 KIAS
(20,000- 25,000’) 245 KIAS
Max canopy emergency open 250 KIAS
Max canopy open 240 KIAS
Max turbulent air penetration 195 KIAS
Max gear extension 150 KIAS
Max flap extension 120 KIAS
Max gear retraction 120 KIAS
Min flap retraction 90 KIAS
Downwind airspeed 100 KIAS
VFR/overhead break airspeed 170 KIAS
Full flap landing airspeed 85 KIAS
No flap landing airspeed 95 KIAS
Best angle of climb (Vx) 75 KIAS
Best rate ot climb (Vy) 100 KIAS
Recommended bailout airspeed 90-120 KIAS
Max range airspeed 580 ft-lbs
Max endurance airspeed 420 ft-lbs

Idle operating range 150 ft-lbs
Auto ignition range 300-180…
Descent 300…
Prop over speed test range 400-500…
Normal operating range 400-l015…
Climb 1015 (695°C)
Max allowable 1015…
Maximum torque 1315…
Max torque (oil malfunction) 850…

Fuel Flow
Idle ~125 lbs/hr
Normal operation ~335 lbs/hr

Aerobatic Flight (seconds)
Inverted: 15
Vertical, nose up: 15
Vertical flight, nose down: 3
Level flight, wings vertical: 3
Max zero G flight time: Transient only

Ceiling: 25000 ft
Max sink rate at ground contact: 600 FPM

Airstart Envelope (MSL)
surf to 20000 ft between 80 & 280 KIAS

Battery: 24 Vdc/18 amp/hr
Generator: 30 Vdc/200 amp
Starter: 28 Vdc/800 amp

Control panel regulates from 27-29.5V
Overvoltage protection @ 34V-25V
Reverse Current Protection @ 25V
Annunciator light @ 25-27.5V

Oil Temperature
Min starting temperature -40°C
Normal Operating range 10-99°C
Maximum 100°C

Oil pressure
Idle operating range 40 PSI min
Normal operating range 65-85 PSI
Maximum fluctuation +5 (within limits)
Max oil pressure 100 PSI

G Limits
Up to 280 KIAS +4.5/-1.0 G's
Up to 220 KIAS +4.5/-2.3 G's
Flaps down +2.0/-1.0

Time limits
Max time inverted 15 sec
Max time vertical (nose up) 15 sec
Max time vertical (nose down) 3 sec
Max time wings vertical (knife edge):3 sec
“Zero G” condition transient
Starter 40s/60s/40s/60s/40s/30min

Wing span 33’ 5”
Length 28’8”
Height (at rest) 9’11”
Tread 9’6”
Prop arc clearance 11”

Weight limitations
Maximum ramp weight 4,425 lbs
Takeoff and landing 4,400 lbs
Max aerobatic weight 4,300 lbs
Max zero fuel weight 3,650 lbs
Approximate basic weight ~2,970 lbs

Miscellaneous limits
Max sink rate @ touch down 600 FPM
Max crosswind component 22(NF),15(FF)
Max operating altitude 25,000’
Air start envelope, SL-20k’ 80-280 KIAS

Engine: Pratt & Whitney PT6A-25
Flat rated 550 SHP(1315)
Normal operation 425 SHP(1015)
Compression ratio: 7:1
3 stage axial, 1 stage centrifugal

Landing Gear
Nose gear turn limits ±30°
Main tire pressure 90 PSI ± 2
Nose wheel tire pressure 70 PSI ± 2
Oxygen system capacity 1850 PSI@70°F
Oxygen system volume 76 cubic feet
Oil system capacity 4.4 gal
Oil tank capacity 2.8 gal
Usable oil (upright) 1.4 gal
(inverted) .25

Tire Pressure (PSI)
nosewheel: 70 +/-2
main wheel: 90 +/-2

40s/30s, 40s/30s, 40s/30min

1. Night formation flights
2. Inverted flight above 220 KIAS
3. Intentional spins with flaps and/or gear
4. Intentional inverted spins
5. Intentional spins with the prop feathered
6. Inverted stall maneuvers

Day VMC: 1200 Night VMC: 2000
Day IMC: 2000 Night IMC: 2000
OCF: 5000

Reduction Gearbox
Reduction gear ratio: 15:1 (2 stage)

UHF 50, VOR 120, TACAN 290

ELP interception techniques
Maintain 100 kts maneuvering to high key. To dissipate excess altitude to arrive at a proper high key, use "S" turns, slip, or a combination of the two (bow ties also work well). You may also lower the flaps early (unpaved field) or the gear early (paved field only) if necessary. Do not become so totally absorbed in the airstart procedures that you do not fly the aircraft to a safe landing. Continually scan altitude, airspeed and position as you fly the ELP profile. If the gear/flaps were not previously used to dissipate altitude, lower either the gear or flaps at high key (depending on what type field at which you are landing), altitude permitting, and RETRIM. If low at high key, it may be necessary to hold the gear/flaps (or retract them if previously lowered) until back on altitude within the ELP profile. If holding the gear/flaps, report it to the instructor.

New Maneuvers for this event:

SPIN Spin (ground reference scan/spin indications inside cockpit)

Spin Entry:

  1. C: Normal cruise, 9000’ AGL (Trimmed - don't re-trim until complete)
  2. C: Stall Checklist BCHAIR
  3. C*: 45°/180° (be sure that 1,500' below is clear of aircraft or clouds)
    *SELECT a reference point on the ground during clearing turn.
  4. Roll out on reference point
  5. 200 ft-lbs.
  6. Check wings level, 30° nose up.
  7. PCL Idle.
  8. Rudder shakers - lead the stall with rudder in the same direction as the last clearing turn.
  9. STALL (nose pitching down)
  10. FULL RUDDER, FULL BACKSTICK. Do not use ailerons!
  11. During the initial rotation, notice the original point of reference. Watch for the point as the aircraft rotates. Count the number of turns as the point or reference passes the nose. Do not stare directly over the nose, but look towards the horizon and in the direction of spin for the approaching reference point.

Spin Recovery: Recover with a minimum loss of altitude; emphasis is on smooth control movements.

  1. After two turns... FULL OPPOSITE RUDDER, STICK FORWARD OF NEUTRAL. Do not use ailerons!
  2. Hold controls until the rotation stops
  3. Neutralize the controls (any delay in this step may result in negative G loading).
    1. Check PCL idle.
    2. Level wings TO THE HORIZON (look left, look right, check for streaming fuel).
    3. Smooth pullout @ 120kts+ (4.5/-2.3 Gs, 24 units AOA max)
  4. OIL Check the oil pressure for a minimum of 40 psi.
  5. POWER 600 ft-lbs.
  6. OIL Report "Oil pressure ____ PSI"
  7. GYRO / RMI - Slave if necessary (precession).
  8. AUTO IGN - OFF.

NOTE - At spin entry, the instructor pilot will scan inside cockpit to verify stalled AOA, airspeed stabilized between 80-90 kts (after two turns), turn needle fully deflected in direction of spin and proper pro-spin inputs. Upon application of anti-spin inputs, instructor will verify proper anti-spin inputs inside the cockpit.

NOTE - During a spin, left and right fuel caution lights may illuminate regardless of fuel state. Propeller RPM may decrease below normal operating RPM.

WARNING - Erect spins with the propeller feathered are prohibited. Due to reduced airflow, spin recovery may not be possible with the propeller fully feathered. If propeller feathering action is noted during a spin, initiate recovery immediately.

Common Errors:

  1. Not reducing PCL to 200 ft-lbs after rolling wings level from the clearing turn.
  2. Becoming disoriented and not initiating recovery after two turns.
  3. Not neutralizing the controls as the rotation stops.
  4. Commencing the pullout too rapidly and/or too early, resulting in a secondary stall.
  5. Not checking the oil pressure, late in adding power when level, and not reporting oil pressure to the instructor.
  6. Unintentionally placing the stick in the wrong position. Either too far forward or aft. Unintentionally placing the stick in neutral or slightly aft of neutral.

High altitude power loss (HAPL) - The simulated HAPL will be initiated above 2500 ft AGL by the instructor reducing power to idle and informing the student he has a simulated power loss. The HAPL may occur at any airspeed and configuration. Fly to intercept the ELP profile while simultaneously executing the appropriate procedures. Power losses may be caused by engine seizure, flameout, or malfunction of the pneumatic sensing system of the fuel control unit resulting in a "rollback." In the last case, the pilot may restore power by utilizing the EPL enabling him to execute a PEL at a paved field. However, if power cannot be restored, executing the HAPL procedures will be required when above 2500 feet AGL. Where to land:

Low altitude power loss (LAPL) - The simulated LAPL will be initiated between 800 and 2500 feet AGL by the instructor reducing power to idle and informing the student he has a simulated power loss. If below 1000' AGL, the instructor will set 200 ft-lbs.
This may be conducted in any airspeed and configuration. The first few times will be initiated from cruise, however.
The primary concern of the pilot in this situation is to maintain flying speed initially. Once the aircraft is under control, the pilot will maneuver towards the best suitable landing site while simultaneously conducting the necessary procedures to prepare the aircraft for landing. Time and altitude permitting, the pilot should attempt to accomplish as many of the listed steps as possible. If power loss should occur at a very low altitude, priority shall be given to accomplishing the first six steps.

CAUTION - If an actual engine failure occurs and power cannot be restored by the EPL, the decision to feather the propeller must be made rapidly. N1 and ITT will enable you to analyze the problem most quickly. The sink rate is dramatically increased with the propeller unfeathered, severely reducing the glide range.

NOTE - You must consider the option to BAILOUT. If a landing site is not available and an airstart is not possible, you should BAILOUT while sufficient altitude remains.

  1. FLY - Maintain 100 KIAS. If fast, raise the nose If slow, DROP the nose.
  2. CLEAN - Gear & Flaps Up (Streaming Fuel? Fumes? don't lower electrically)
    Report"Aircraft clean" over ICS
  3. CHECK. Engine instruments check. "N1 is _____%" The instructor will reply with a simulated condition of:

    ROLLBACK (N1 40% - 62%)
    1. Condition lever - FULL INCREASE RPM
    If sufficient power is restored:
    3. PCL - IDLE
    4. PEL - EXECUTE

    - Use of BETA is not recommended when performing a landing using the manual fuel control system. If the use of BETA is required, ensure the EPL is in the IDLE range or DISCONNECT before selecting BETA with the PCL.

    If the resultant power is insufficient to execute a PEL:
    6. Continue below with ENGINE FAILURE procedures.

    FLAMEOUT (N1 12%)
    Continue below with ENGINE FAILURE procedures, attempt and airstart.

    Continue below with ENGINE FAILURE procedures and DO NOT attempt an airstart!
    UNCOMMANDED PROPELLER FEATHER (N1 normal, high torque, low prop rpm)
    1. Condition lever - FULL INCREASE RPM
    If propeller remains feathered:
    2. PCL - ADVANCE (as required)

    NOTE - In the event of a primary governor shaft failure, the propeller will move toward feather; however, unboosted engine oil pressure alone may be sufficient to maintain propeller pitch between feather and normal governing rpm range at high-power settings. Resultant power may be sufficient to maintain level flight.

    If the resultant power does not improve performance (torque not >200 ft-lbs):
    3. PCL - IDLE
    4. Continue below with ENGINE FAILURE procedures
        DO NOT: Condition lever feather, perfrorm an airstart, or shutdown the engine until the last possible moment!

    NOTE - Because it is possible for the propeller to unfeather and restore useful power, consideration should be given to leaving the condition lever at FULL INCREASE RPM until intercepting the ELP.

  4. FEATHER. (UNLESS it was an unintentional feather) "Simulate condition lever to feather" over ICS
  5. LOOK. Consider wind direction, Select a runway or field and report.. "Intend to land ________________" over ICS

    If no field is available and airstart is not possible
    BAILOUT: Crew, Canopy, Cords, Mask, Harness, Crouch, Dive, Pull
    If too low (<1,500' AGL)...
    DITCH: Kill, Kill, Flaps, Canopy, (Mayday, Parachute, Oxygen Mask, Battery OFF) Exit, LPU
  6. LOCK Harness, "Harness locked" .... "Both Cockpits"
    1. PCL - IDLE
    2. Emergency fuel shutoff handle - DOWN, CLIP IN PLACE
    3. Standby fuel pump - ON
    4. Starter switch - ON
    6. Standby fuel pump - OFF

      CAUTION - If an airstart is attempted and unsuccessful, sufficient battery power may not be available to lower the flaps or gear electrically.

      If a successful start:
    7. Condition lever - FULL INCREASE RPM
    9. PEL - EXECUTE
      If not successful with an airstart:
    10. Continue below with ENGINE FAILURE procedures.
  8. If airstart is not attempted or is unsuccessful, there is no landing site available and altitude permits:
    BAILOUT: Crew, Canopy, Cords, Mask, Harness, Crouch, Dive, Pull
    If too low (<1,500' AGL)...
    DITCH: Kill, Kill, Flaps, Canopy, (Mayday, Parachute, Oxygen Mask, Battery OFF) Exit, LPU

    If forced landing is to be continued:
  9. SECURE ENGINE (UNLESS due to prop feather)
    1. Condition lever - FUEL OFF
    2. Emergency Fuel shutoff handle - PULL
    1. BROADCAST. (Simulate) GUARD on UHF and SQUAWK 7700.
    2. ICS "MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, Ranger ______, ENGINE FAILURE, over Chapman Ranch, at 5000', Intend forced landing in farmer's field"
  11. Drop Gear OR Flaps (Fumes? Streaming fuel? Don't operate gear/flaps electrically)
  12. Landing Checklist up to Flaps, Secure the engine if held due to prop feather

    Intercept the ELP... HIGH/LOW KEY
    1. Report High Key... 2500' AGL, 100 KIAS, 1/4 WTD
      CH ___: "____Tower/RDO, Ranger ______, HIGH/LOW KEY, runway ______"
      Crosswind: 2000' AGL, 100 KIAS, 10-15° AOB (Don't report unless told to do so)
    2. Report Low Key... 1200' AGL, 100 KIAS, 2/3 WTD
      ICS "LOW KEY"
      CH ___: "____Tower/RDO, Ranger ______, LOW KEY, GEAR DOWN AND LOCKED"
    3. FLAPS (22kts crosswind max)
    4. 90° POSITION. 600-800' AGL, 100 KIAS
      Drop NOSE TO TRANSITION TO 90/95. (may have to slip if it appears as though you are in a high final).
      FINAL. 1200-1500' straight-away, 90/95 KIAS
  13. WAVEOFF no lower than 300'. CH__"____Tower/RDO, Ranger ____ Waveoff"

Common errors:

  1. Failure to establish 100 kt glide, TRIMMED.
  2. Failure to use proper procedures for power loss conditions.
  3. Failure to maneuver aircraft toward high key while conducting procedures.
  4. Failure to complete landing checklist.
  5. Not using "S" turns, slip, or lowering flaps to dissipate excess altitude.
  6. Not judging wind conditions or compensating for drift in order to arrive at high key headed in desired direction of landing.
  7. Failure to allow for field elevation.
  8. Excessive angle of bank turning from high key toward low key.
  9. Failure to maintain 100 kts off high key.
  10. Failure to level wings at low key to check low key position.
  11. Turning too tightly off low key.
  12. Not flying a proper 90 degree position.
  13. Not using paved field when available.

    NOTE - Try to intercept the ELP profile at or below high key. If initiated at a very low altitude, the only recourse may be to land straight ahead. Better to land controlled into the treetops than to stall the aircraft trying to make a field out of range. If unable to reach low key for a suitable field, try for a 90 degree position. If no 90 degree position is obtainable, look for a good final for the landing site. Once the field is made, lower the flaps and conduct the landing checklist. If conducted to a hard surfaced field, lower the gear when the field is made. Then lower the flaps (to reduce the stall speed) prior to touchdown, winds permitting. Remember that with the prop feathered (simulated or real), the aircraft will have a tendency to float considerably compared to normal landing transition. The canopy once opened will create some drag, increasing the rate of descent slightly. Plan accordingly.

Practice precautionary emergency landing (PPEL) - Reasons for PEL: CHIP light, Successful Airstart, Uncontrollable High Power, FUEL PRESS / MASTER CAUTION light, Oil pressure / Temperature out of limits / pressure fluctuation.

  1. TURN toward the selected field
  2. CLIMB at 120 kts to a position within dead engine glide range distance of High Key. (100kts in REAL emergency)
    (12:1 ratio) + (High Key 2,500')
    Use 1,015 ft-lbs (850 if oil related) to climb, or descend if too high.
  3. CLEAN Gear and Flaps up (Fumes? Streaming Fuel? don't lower electrically)
  4. CHECK engine and flight instruments
  5. DETERMINE the duty runway
    CH ____ “_____ Tower, Ranger ______, landing”
    Field replies... “Ranger ____,_____Tower, landing runway _______, Altimeter ______ ”
    "Roger, Ranger _______, Altimeter ______"
  6. DELIVER PAN voice report using ISPI format
    ICS (UHF if actual) “PAN-PAN, PAN-PAN, PAN-PAN, Ranger ______, Fuel Pressure Light, 2 miles southeast of Navy Corpus at 5500', intend a PEL to runway ______”
  7. REDUCE power to 205 ft-lbs, transition to a 100 kt glide once in Dead Engine glide range distance of runway.
    REPORT when 2 miles from High Key (3,500’)
    CH __“_____Tower/RDO, Ranger ____, Approaching high key from the ____(direction), practice PEL, runway ___”
  8. LOWER Gear prior to high key
  9. Landing Checklist up to Flaps.

    Intercept the ELP... HIGH/LOW KEY
    1. Report High Key... 2500' AGL, 100 KIAS, 1/4 WTD
      CH ___: "____Tower/RDO, Ranger ______, HIGH/LOW KEY, runway ______"
      Crosswind: 2000' AGL, 100 KIAS, 10-15° AOB (Don't report unless told to do so)
    2. Report Low Key... 1200' AGL, 100 KIAS, 2/3 WTD
      ICS "LOW KEY"
      CH ___: "____Tower/RDO, Ranger ______, LOW KEY, GEAR DOWN AND LOCKED"
    3. FLAPS (22kts crosswind max)
    4. 90° POSITION. 600-800' AGL, 100 KIAS
      Drop NOSE TO TRANSITION TO 90/95. (may have to slip if it appears as though you are in a high final).
      FINAL. 1200-1500' straight-away, 90/95 KIAS

No Flap approach and Landing
* The No Flap approach and landing are the same as the Full Flap approach & landing with exceptions:

  1. 15° prior to abeam - Power 275 ft-lbs
  2. 180° - 95 kts
  3. Maintain 95 kts throughout final/approach
  4. Climbout airspeed after touch and go - 100 kts

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