Last updated: 3 June, 2008 16:46 by Bryan Weatherup
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Instrument, gas, and position reports (IGP)
These reports should be performed every 15-20 minutes at a minimum.  In fact, the more frequent the better.  Plan to give one once on your level off altitude enroute your working area and before/after each one of your high work maneuvers.  When you study your procedures, put these reports at the beginning so as to not forget inflight. The student will check all engine instruments for normal indications, the purpose of which is the early detection of any engine malfunction.  The fuel quantity in each tank is checked in order to detect excessive fuel consumption or uneven fuel flow.  Determine your position by reference to checkpoints on the ground.  It is of vital importance that the student be aware of his position at all times during the flight (you never know when you’ll get a simulated HAPL/LAPL or PPEL). “ENGINE INSTRUMENTS NORMAL, FUEL IS 290 LBS LEFT TANK, 300 LBS RIGHT TANK AND OUR POSITION IS 3 MILES SOUTH OF SUMMERDALE.”

Sandbag Syndrome/Co-pilot responsibilities
The Sandbag Syndrome is based on a comforting premise that one or more other crew members have the situation under control and are looking out for your best interest.  It is mainly experienced at times when the instructor has the controls and results in the SNA being “along for the ride”.  It is important to remember that no pilot is above the momentary lapse of judgment or situation awareness which could result in a flight violation or mishap. As a co-pilot, your primary responsibility is to support and back-up the pilot at the controls.  Stay alert and speak up if and when necessary.  Don’t let misplaced professional courtesies stand in the way of maintaining safe and efficient flying practices.

Ground Power Unit (GPU) start
Signal the lineman if you are going to require a GPU start.  Remember if the battery’s voltage is less than 18V, you’ll have to get a new battery.  Don’t attempt to start the aircraft with the GPU if 18V’s is the case. The GPU start will occur much more rapidly than a regular starter driven lightoff.  Before you even finish saying “Battery above 10 volts, ignition light on, fuel pressure light out, checking of a rise in oil pressure and N1”, N1 will already be at 20+ percent looking for some fuel!  It’s that quick.  Additionally, when the lineman pulls the GPU cables out of your aircraft, the starter goes offline and the generator is supposed to come online.  Nine times out of ten it won’t, thus, extinguish the Master Caution and cycle the generator switch to extinguish the Generator Annunicator light.

Tire failure, ON TAKEOFF
If tire failure occurs on takeoff roll, use the abort takeoff procedure and maintain directional control with rudder and brakes.

  2. Wheelbrakes - AS REQUIRED
    If anticipating going off runway into unprepared terrain:
  3. Condition lever - FUEL OFF
  4. Emergency fuel shutoff handle - PULL
  5. Canopy - EMERGENCY OPEN
  6. Battery switch - OFF
    When aircraft comes to rest:
  7. Harness - RELEASE (don’t forget to release cords)
  8. Parachute - UNFASTENED
  9. Evacuate aircraft

If a tire fails on takeoff and the aircraft becomes airborne, proceed as follows:

  1. Leave landing gear down.
  2. Get visual confirmation.
  3. Land aircraft on good tire side of runway.
    Maintain directional control with rudder as necessary and brakes as required.  Use beta and brakes to aid in deceleration.
  4. Do not taxi with blown tire.

Aborted Takeoff

  1. PCL -------------------------------- FULL BETA
  2. Wheelbrakes ---------------------- AS REQUIRED
    If going off runway is anticipated:
  3. Condition Lever ----------------- FUEL OFF
  4. T-Handle -------------------------- PULL
  5. Canopy ---------------------------- EMERGENCY OPEN
  6. Battery Switch ------------------- OFF
    When aircraft comes to rest:
  7. Harness ---------------------------- RELEASE
  8. Parachute -------------------------- UNFASTENED
  9. Evacuate Aircraft

    NOTE - When maximum baking is required, lower the nosewheel to the deck before applying the brakes.  For maximum braking, use a single, smooth application of the brakes with constantly  increasing pedal pressure as speed is lost.  Use as much braking pressure as possible without sliding the tires.  Beta is not available with an engine failure.

If Executing an Intentional/Practice Abort

  1. Call tower for takeoff, stating your intentions
  2. Position aircraft on runway for a normal takeoff
  3. When properly aligned on the runway and cleared for an ABORTED TAKEOFF, add power to 400 ft-lbs and check instruments
  4. Release the brakes, advance the PCL to 1015 ft-lbs, and commence a normal takeoff roll
  5. Before 1,500 ft of takeoff roll, initiate the ABORT TAKEOFF procedure
  6. Maneuver is complete when the aircraft has achieved a safe taxi speed
  7. Taxi clear of the runway or commence takeoff from your present position if possible

New Maneuvers for this event:


  1. Call tower for clearance
  2. When crossing the hold short line, call for the line-up checklist
  3. When aligned on the runway and cleared for takeoff, add power to 400 ft-lbs and check engine instruments. Report “Instruments checked” over the ICS.
  4. Select a reference point. Position the stick in neutral. Release the brakes. Maintain directional control using rudder pressure. Advance PCL to maximum allowable within three seconds.
  5. At approximately 70 - 80 kts, smoothly apply back stick pressure and position the nose to takeoff attitude (cowl seam on the horizon). Maintain this attitude and allow the aircraft to fly itself off the deck at 80 - 85 kts.
  6. When a safe landing can no longer be made on the runway, check fuel caps for streaming fuel, report “Fuel caps secure,” raise the landing gear and report “Three up and locked.”
  7. Set the 120 kt climbing attitude (cowl seam on the horizon). Climb out in accordance with course rules. Retrim as necessary.
  8. Perform cruise checklist.
  9. Call Departure.

Slow Flight:

  1. Configuration: 90 kias Dirty
  2. Checklist: Stall Checklist (BRAER/BCHAIR)
  3. Clearing turns: 30 deg. AOB for 180 deg. *Gear is down = max 30°
  4. CHOP POWER - 400 ft-lbs, then add...
  5. POWER to stabilize at 25-26 units AOA RIGHT TRIM
    Rudder, Elevator, Aileron pressures
    Roll shallow AOB turns
    Turn w/o rudder (uncoordinated)
    Turn w/rudder (coordinated)
  7. POWER: 1015. Check for 90-120...
  8. DROP gear & flaps
  9. CHOP power for NORMAL CRUISE (150 kias, 600-650 ft-lbs)

Power Off Stall (POS):

  1. Configuration: Slow cruise (120 kias Clean)
  2. Checklist (BCHAIR)
  3. Clearing turns: 45°AOB for 180°
  4. CHOP POWER - 200 ft-lbs, TRIM for 100 kt descent "glide attitude" (horiz bisect)
  5. STACKS on horizon (nose 12°-15° above normal cruise)
  6. STALL
    Relax back stick pressure
    Raise nose to resume 100 kt power-off attitude (horiz bisect)
    Max (complete when in 100 kt power-off glide)

Radio Calls:

3: “Navy Corpus Ground, Ranger ___, taxi from ____B/C/G line with information _____ATIS
3: “Navy Corpus Ground, Ranger ___, further taxi”
4: “Navy Corpus Tower, Ranger ___, takeoff”
4: “Ranger ___, cleared for takeoff / hold short [13L/13R/17/31L/31R/35]”

“Time is ______, Transponder Altitude, Pitot heat off, strobe lights on, T/O checklist complete”
ICS: “Engine and flight instruments checked...
         Torque 500 ft-lbs, ITT ____, Prop 2200 RPM, Fuel Flow 335, N1 _____%,
         Oil Temp & Pressure in the green, Fuel ___ left, ____ right, RMI aligned.
ICS: “Fuel caps secure, 1-2-3 up and locked”
8:  “Corpus Departure, Ranger ___, Off Navy Corpus, working [north/south] [high/low]”
ICS: Engine instruments normal, fuel is _____ left and _______ right, and our position is _______”

Working High
8:  “Corpus Departure, Ranger ___ [Bob Hall Pier, Mustang Beach, Portland] terminate”
...           “Ranger ___”
17: “Corpus Approach, Ranger ___, (position), what’s available [north/south] high”
...           “Ranger ___ claims ____”
: Engine instruments normal, fuel is _____ left and _______ right, and our position is _______”
17: “Corpus Approach, Ranger ___ leaving area ______"

Working Low
17: “Corpus Approach, Ranger ___, _____ situation, _______ position, _____ intentions
       ex: “Corpus Approach, Ranger ___, course rules to Waldron"

Bouncing at Waldron / A-Cty
8: “Corpus Approach, Ranger ___: “Corpus approach, Ranger ___, [Shrimp Ponds / Nine-Mile], terminate.”
15: “[Waldron Tower / RDO], Ranger ____, [Shrimp Ponds / Nine-Mile] inbound, touch-n-go's"

Returning home
8: “Corpus Approach, Ranger ___, (position), (alt), (intentions) with information ___”
8: “Corpus approach, Ranger ___, [Pt. Shamrock/Pt. Lima], terminate.”
4: “Navy Corpus Tower, Ranger ___, [Pt. Shamrock/Pt. Lima], [full stop/ touch and go]”
4: “Navy Corpus Tower, Ranger ___, initial for [13L/13R/17/31L/31R/35]”
4: “Navy Corpus Tower, Ranger ___, numbers for the break”
4: “Navy Corpus Tower, Ranger ___, 180, three down and locked, [full stop/touch and go]”
ICS: “Gear down, paddles checked”
4: “Navy Corpus Tower, Ranger ___, waveoff” (if necessary)
3: “Navy Corpus ground, Ranger ___, (position), taxi to my line”

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